The Development of Modern Europe: An Introduction to the Study of Current History, Volume 1

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Covers the territorial changes, national policies, economic conditions and intellectual interests of western Europe during the few decades before the French Revolution and before that the Industrial Revolution, through the Partition of Africa at the Berlin Congress in 1884 in which the European Powers interested in Africa declared the entire drainage of the Congo River as an international state, which should be open to the trade of all nations.
 

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Page 46 - ... the important business of making a pin is, in this manner, divided into about eighteen distinct operations, which in some manufactories are all performed by distinct hands, though in others the same man will sometimes perform two or three of them.
Page 398 - Our epoch, the epoch of the bourgeoisie, possesses, however, this distinctive feature: it has simplified the class antagonisms. Society as a whole is more and more splitting up into two great hostile camps, into two great classes directly facing each other: Bourgeoisie and Proletariat.
Page 46 - One man draws out the wire, another straights it, a third cuts it, a fourth points it, a fifth grinds it at the top for receiving the head; to make the head requires two or three distinct operations; to put it on is a peculiar business, to whiten the pins is another; it is even a trade by itself to put them into the paper; and the important business of making a pin is, in this manner, divided into about eighteen distinct operations, which, in some manufactories, are all performed by distinct hands...
Page 397 - Freeman and slave, patrician and plebeian, lord and serf, guild-master and journeyman, in a word, oppressor and oppressed, stood in constant opposition to one another, carried on an uninterrupted, now hidden, now open fight, a fight that each time ended, either in a revolutionary re-constitution of society at large, or in the common ruin of the contending classes.
Page 223 - I am persuaded that this is a righteous judgment of God upon these barbarous wretches, who have imbrued their hands in so much innocent blood ; and that it will tend to prevent the effusion of blood for the future. Which are the satisfactory grounds to such actions, which otherwise cannot but work remorse and regret.
Page 195 - Melbourne put his back to the door, and said, źNow is it to lower the price of corn, or isn't it? It is not much matter which we say, but mind, we must all say THE SAME.
Page 194 - He has in reality only the right to be consulted, the right to encourage, and the right to warn.
Page 411 - Then comes the question, Why do some live rather than others? If all the individuals of each species were exactly alike in every respect, we could only say it is a matter of chance. But they are not alike. We find that they vary in many different ways. Some are stronger, some swifter, some hardier in constitution, some more cunning. An obscure...
Page 387 - My object has been to attempt to show the numerical relation which poverty, misery, and depravity bear to regular earnings and comparative comfort, and to describe the general conditions under which each class lives.
Page 44 - At every considerable house there was a manufactory. Every clothier keeps one horse at least to carry his manufactures to the market ; and every one generally keeps a cow or two or more for his family. By this means the small pieces of enclosed land about each house are occupied, for they scarce sow corn enough to feed their poultry. The houses are full of lusty fellows, some at the dye-vat, some at the looms, others dressing the cloths ; the women and children carding or spinning ; being all employed...

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